Harvard’s first impressions

first_imgAs Harvard celebrates its 375th anniversary, the Gazette is examining key moments and developments over the University’s broad and compelling history.In the summer of 1638, the John of London set sail from Hull, England, bound for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. On board was Puritan minister Joseph Glover with his wife Elizabeth and their five children. In the ship’s hold was his wooden printing press valued at 20 pounds, paper worth twice that much, and a quantity of lead alloy type.Centuries later, Harvard historian Samuel Eliot Morison called the John of London “the publishing fraternity’s Mayflower.”  That little press, made of pegged timber and iron, was destined to be the first in British North America, the first at Harvard, and the first printing press in the New World managed by a woman. (Glover died during the trans-Atlantic crossing, and his wife carried on.)The press, designed to print one sheet of moistened paper at a time, was the first piece of equipment in a publishing operation that was to print English America’s first book, its first periodical literature, and its first best-sellers, including Michael Wigglesworth’s fervent poem about the Last Judgment called “Day of Doom” (four editions, starting in 1662) and Mary Rowlandson’s 1662 captivity narrative. In sum, “We are looking at the first flowering of American literature coming out of the Harvard press,” said Lisa Brooks, who is John L. Loeb Associate professor of the Humanities.Brooks is writing a book about James Printer, the Nipmuc Indian typesetter, who starting in 1659 played a key role in printing the Eliot Indian Bible (1663), a rendering of the Old and New Testaments in Algonquin. Printer, trained at Harvard’s preparatory school on Crooked Lane, knew Greek, Latin, English, and his native Algonquin. When he arrived on the scene, the translated Bible ceased to be just a pipe dream for John Eliot, a Puritan minister and “apostle to the Indians” who started preaching in the “Massachusett” language in 1646.From the beginning, Glover’s little press was a cultural leap forward in Cambridge, a frontier town two miles upriver from Boston Harbor. It helped to legitimize Harvard, a wilderness Puritan college modeled — perhaps prematurely — on its iconic English cousins at Oxford and Cambridge. In the fall of 1638, one hopeful resident wrote, “wee have a Cambridge here, a college erecting, a library, and I suppose there will be a press by winter.”And there was. As early as December 1638 the little press turned out a broadsheet titled “The Freeman’s Oath,” a document that every man over 20 years of age, and six months a householder, had to swear to in order to become a citizen of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.That fall Elizabeth Glover had settled into the Haynes mansion in Newtowne Square, on the site of present-day Peet’s Coffee & Tea. Her indentured servant, Stephen Daye, moved into a house on nearby Crooked Lane, located at what is now 15 Holyoke St. With him were his three sons, his wife, and the printing press.Daye (who by 1655 would sign his name “Day”) was English America’s first printer, for which he won lasting fame among bibliophiles and students of American printing. But in truth, Daye was a locksmith by trade and an ironworker by inclination, and besides was barely literate. It is likely that his teenage son Matthew, who is believed to have apprenticed as a printer in England, brought what skill there was to New England’s first printery.There were material challenges. The Crooked Lane printery was a “tiny, crude, candle-lit, one-press shop,” wrote one historian. The type was worn, the handmade paper was uneven, the ink was poor, and the press was simple. “The results obtained,” wrote scholar of print Sidney A. Kimber, “matched the equipment.”Supplies were also a problem as the years went on. Metal type was so notoriously hard to make that it had to be imported for the next 150 years. Printing ink, a mix of varnish and lampblack that was hard to get right, was imported too. Most paper came from Europe for at least another century, since the Colonies had a shortage of both rags and skilled workmen. Presses were hard to make. The first American-made press was built by a New Haven clockmaker in 1769.And there were literary challenges. Early products of the press at Cambridge were flawed. There were typographical errors, inventive spellings, and missing words. But even in England, apologetic scholars point out, printing had fallen on hard times. One 1631 Bible was called the “wicked Bible” because the word “not” was left out of the seventh commandment.In Cambridge, printing triumph and printing embarrassment met in one document, “The Whole Booke of Psalms” (1640). It was English America’s first printed book (triumph), but its run of 1,700 copies was marred by blurred type and typographical errors (embarrassment). At the base of some pages, lines bow upwards, where the press’s type was improperly locked in place.Then there was the translation itself. The psalms were faithful to the original Hebrew, but the Colony ministers at work were more scholarly than poetic. “God’s Altar needs not our pollishings,” warned the preface, and the translations within “have attended Conscience rather than Elegance.” The 23rd Psalm, for instance, begins this way:The Lord to mee a shepheard is,Want therefore shall not I, Hee in the folds of tender-grasse, Doth cause mee down to lie;But for all its faults, what we now call the “Bay Psalm Book” was a brilliant creation that rose above the technical limitations of the press and its early workers. It was also sturdy, owing to nonacidic ink and to thick paper made from linen and cotton rags. “The ‘Bay Psalm Book’ is in a lot better shape than the paperback you bought 10 years ago,” said rare books expert Hope Mayo, the Houghton Library’s Hofer Curator of Printing and Graphic Arts. (Harvard owns one of the 12 extant copies.)By the third edition, in 1651, the “Bay Psalm Book” ’s rude translation was smoother, due in part to Henry Dunster, Harvard’s first president. But Dunster had a far bigger role in English America’s first printing press: In 1641 he married the widow Glover, and so gained control of what was the sole printing office in the colony until 1675. The press was moved in 1645 to the president’s lodgings at the south end of what is now Harvard Yard.In its first 10 years, the press was largely underused, despite the triumph of the “Bay Psalm Book.” The 23 imprints of that first decade included Commencement broadsheets, a speller, a catechism, and 10 almanacs. (These last, with charts and essays, were New England’s only periodical literature until the advent of newspapers in the18th century.)Stephen Daye in the 1640s turned the business of printing over to son Matthew.The younger Daye died in 1649, and Dunster hired Samuel Green, a Cambridge jack-of-all-trades. He was to oversee Harvard printing operations until they shut down in 1692. (After that, Harvard did not have another press of its own until 1871.)By 1659, Harvard had acquired a second press, and had moved operations into the new Indian College, Harvard’s first brick building. In the same year, Green received help from New England’s first legitimately trained printer, a London journeyman named Marmaduke Johnson. Printing quality improved, making the Eliot Bible, crisp and neat, the triumph it was. But Johnson raised Puritan ire by racking up debts, drinking to excess, and — despite being a married man — forcing his affections on one of Green’s daughters.Harvard’s first printing press itself, for all its importance to English America’s early literature, has been lost to time. Morison speculated that it was ready for “the junk pile” even before 1700. But until the 1950s most scholars of printing believed that the so-called Stephen Daye press was used well into the 18th century, and ended up in the Vermont Historical Society’s museum in Montpelier. “It’s possible, but we don’t think so,” said museum curator Jacqueline Calder, citing current scholarship.Still, the timber-frame “common press” on display in Montpelier resembles the one Stephen Daye unpacked in 1638. Stout and plain, it has had a place in the museum since the 19th century.But many modern visitors are puzzled by the contraption. “I don’t think people realize what it is,” said Calder. “I don’t think they realize the importance of printed materials.”last_img read more

Blueberry Freeze

first_imgEarly blueberry varieties felt the chill of deep freezes during January and February, according to University of Georgia blueberry specialist Erick Smith.“I do know that the flowers that were open during the freezes, especially with that last long spell, they probably were frozen,” Smith said. “On the early varieties, that may have constituted about 40 to 50 percent (of flowers).”Georgia blueberry producers farm mostly Southern highbush and rabbiteye varieties. The Southern highbush varieties are the earliest to bloom and were the berries impacted by January and February temperatures. UGA plant pathologist Phil Brannen cautions that the same fate could fall on rabbiteye blueberries, which are beginning to bloom.“The next week or two for the rabbiteye varieties will be critical. Even after you have small berries form, you can still have cold weather significant enough to lose berries as well. There’s still a month at least where we have to look at the temperatures before we’ll be out of the woods, as far as cold damage,” Brannen said. “If you look at some of the historical freezes we’ve had, they have been really late and have done significant damage to our blueberry crop.”Winter freezes are nothing new for Georgia blueberry producers. Many prepare for the cold temperatures with frost protection systems, which apply water through overhead irrigation systems. This practice protects the plant’s bud from being damaged, Smith said.“As water moves from liquid to solid, it’s 32 degrees and there’s a little bit of energy that’s given off as it moves from a liquid state to a solid state. During that time when water’s freezing, it’s protecting the bud by not allowing it to go any colder than 32 degrees,” Smith said.Many farmers applied water on their plants for three days straight during the worst cold snaps, Smith said. However, even with frost protection, some farmers saw crop damage. The temperatures were just that low. “The frost protection really did help in some situations. But given how cold it got and what the dew point was, some of those early varieties that were producing flower blossoms—no matter what you did, it wouldn’t have helped,” said Renee Holland, UGA Extension blueberry specialist for the Southeast District.According to the Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring Network, low temperatures in Bacon County — the top blueberry-producing county in Georgia — dipped to 25, 23 and 29 degrees from Feb. 19-21. The weekend before, back-to-back nights of low temperatures were recorded at 28 and 28 Feb. 13-14.Even as spring approaches and warmer temperatures are felt on a daily basis, Brannen believes there is still potential for certain diseases to arise that can impact frozen plant tissue.“On the freezes that we had a few weeks ago, the potential is there for Botrytis to come in on freeze-damaged tissue, and then sometimes you’ll have Botryosphaeria, which will also come in on that tissue. It can actually go down and kill the whole plant,” Brannen said. “There’s a direct effect of the freeze damage on the blossoms or the buds, but they die immediately. There can be additional issues with diseases that can take out a whole plant.”Georgia is the country’s top blueberry producer. According to the UGA Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development, almost 28,000 acres were planted in 2013, with a farm gate value of $312.7 million.last_img read more

CFPB Financial Literacy Report

first_img continue reading » Financial literacy and financial education are important to the National Credit Union Association (NCUA). NCUA has a financial literacy and education resource center landing page on its website that is designed to “help credit unions promote financial literacy to assist their members with making smarter financial decisions.” As NCUA states on that landing page, promoting financial literacy reinforces the Federal Credit Union Act: “credit unions were organized for the purpose of promoting thrift among its members and creating a source of credit for provident or productive purposes.”Late last month, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (CFPB) released its Financial Literacy Annual Report for fiscal year 2019 (2019 Report). The 2019 Report was the CFPB’s seventh such report, and it covered the CFPB’s financial literacy activities during the 2019 fiscal year and its strategies to improve the financial literacy of consumers. The 2019 Report, like the six annual reports that preceded it, is required by the Dodd-Frank Act. See, 12 USC § 5493(d)(4).The CFPB’s focus on financial literacy and financial education arises out of the Dodd-Frank Act:“One of the Bureau’s five statutory objectives is to ensure that ‘consumers are provided with timely and understandable information to make responsible decisions about financial transactions,’ and one of the Bureau’s statutory functions is ‘conducting financial education programs.’” See, 2019 Report at 4.The 2019 Report initially discussed some of the highlights of the CFPB’s financial literacy and financial education work in 2019: ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more

The regional wine shop in Osijek will soon become an Eno-gastro interpretation center

first_imgPhoto: Osijek-Baranja CountyThrough the development of innovative multimedia solutions, the eno-gastronomic story of Slavonia and Baranja will be interpreted and presented in a more innovative and high-quality way. The application of modern and intuitive technologies and modern design will expand the experience of potential users, and thus the demand for traditional, indigenous agri-food products. The eno-gastro interpretation center should open its doors to visitors at the end of November this year.The wine shop is also the venue for numerous events of various characters in the courtyard of Kazamat, which attract a very large number of visitors and have a tendency of constant growth, which illustrates the additional potential to increase the number of visitors in the future eno-gastro interpretation center.By the way, during the first ten months of this year in the Osijek-Baranja County there was an increase in the number of overnight stays of as much as 20% and arrivals of 16%. The City of Osijek is implementing the project “Wine Tour – eno gastro interpretation center” through which the space will be arranged and the Regional Wine Shop in Osijek will be multimedia equipped into an interpretation center.The project is worth HRK 667.001,86, of which the Ministry of Tourism provides HRK 392.200,00, and recognizing the importance of project implementation, Osijek-Baranja County has concluded an agreement with the City of Osijek under which it co-finances it with HRK 137.400,00. Over 20 wine producers from Osijek-Baranja County from all 4 vineyards are represented in the Regional Wine Shop. These vineyards also contain 12 wine roads whose offer will also be presented in the new interpretation center.The Mayor of Osijek, Ivan Vrkić, points out that this project is a continuation of the excellent cooperation between the City and the County, in which the City provides space, and the County arranges it. He said that all this is being done with the aim of raising tourism to a higher level, and announced that a new project of special importance for the arrangement of the Fortress and the tourist performance of Slavonia – arranging the infrastructure of the Fortress – will begin in December.Photo: Osijek-Baranja County”In the newly renovated space, about 20 wine producers from 4 vineyards will have the opportunity to present their offer in a modern way, which raises the tourist offer to a higher level. This project fits into the comprehensive story of the renovation and arrangement of the Fortress, so in addition to the existing large project of building Vatroslav Lisinski Square and the reconstruction of the Old Bakery, in December we expect another major project to restore the entire infrastructure of the Fortress. All this opens up opportunities for new employment, new income and new development of the city and the county. ” said Vrkic.Today’s Regional Wine Shop (future Eno-gastro interpretation center) is the result of the EU project – WINE TOUR, worth 1.248.519,29 euros, which includes the Osijek Regional Wine Shop and 4 smaller wine shops in all 4 vineyards of Osijek-Baranja County, 17,13 km of wine roads were arranged and activities of education and promotion of tourist facilities in the vineyards were carried out.”The goal of the project “Wine tour – eno gastro interpretation center” is that the Regional Wine Shop operates daily and is available to tourists who visit Osijek and Osijek-Baranja County and that through wine tasting they can get to know our wines, vineyards and eno offer, but also visit vineyards and winemakers who produce those excellent wines. There is not much to say about the Fortress, it is beautiful in itself, as everyone who comes to it says. Therefore, the entire area should be systematically renovated and at the same time given new facilities and a higher level of tourist offer”Said Osijek-Baranja County Prefect Ivan Anušić.last_img read more

Crowdfunding raises Rp 14m for family of journalist in land dispute defamation case

first_imgDiananta’s wife was a full-time housewife who lived in Jember with the couple’s children, she added.By Sunday, the campaign had raised Rp 14 million (US$968.29) from journalists, college students, environmental activists, indigenous communities and other donors.”We hope the [fund] will be enough to support Nanta’s family over the next two months,” Ika said.She explained that the fundraising campaign aimed to strengthen solidarity between journalists, the public and indigenous peoples while providing a channel for them to express their objections over Nanta’s arrest.Diananta, the former chief editor of local media outlet banjarhits.id in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, was reportedly detained by police on May 4 after Sukirman, who claimed to represent the Dayak indigenous people, filed a defamation suit.The defamation suit concerns an article Diananta wrote that was published in November 2019. The article covers an alleged land dispute in the province between the local Dayak community and a palm oil company owned by businessman Syamsudin “Haji Isam” Andi Irsyad.”The purpose of journalism is the public interest. Journalists report on data and facts from the field […] so the public [has] credible information,” said Ika. “Without press freedom and independence, it’s impossible for the public to obtain credible information. Criminalizing journalists, in this case Diananta, threatens the public’s right to […] information.” (nal)Topics : Journalists and members of the public in a coalition of indigenous communities and press freedoms have started a crowdfunding campaign to support Diananta “Nanta” Putera Samedi, a journalist in South Kalimantan who was recently arrested for his report on a land dispute.Ika Ningtyas from the Jember, East Java, branch of the Alliance of Independent Journalists (AJI), who helped start the campaign, said that any funds raised would go toward supporting Diananta’s wife and children financially through his judicial proceedings.”Since Nanta was arrested and had to go through the legal process, his family lost its main […] breadwinner,” said Ika.last_img read more

Dutch pension fund body sets out stall on CMU agenda

first_imgThe Dutch occupational pension funds association has set out its stall concerning the European Commission’s Capital Markets Union (CMU) project, issuing  recommendations based on those from a group of experts created on the initiative of the finance ministers for France, Germany and the Netherlands.The Commission, which is responsible for planning and proposing new European legislation, has since set up its own group to develop the CMU agenda for the next five years, with a deadline of the end of May to deliver policy recommendations.Pensioen Federatie’s intervention came shortly before the EU Council, the body for all EU governments, today announced what could be seen as its response to the work of the Next CMU group, the body created by France, Germany and the Netherlands.“With the new European Commission kicking off this week, we call upon the EU to reinvigorate the project and set an ambitious new agenda for the next five years,” said the Dutch pension fund association. It highlighted three main recommendations for the EU “to harness the long-term investment potential of pension funds”.According to the association, although almost 90% of Dutch pension funds’ assets were invested outside the Netherlands, there were still barriers to investing cross-border in the EU.It called for a harmonised procedure for repayment of withholding tax, arguing that a “patchwork of procedures and outcomes” held back intra-EU investments, particularly for smaller pension schemes.The Commission should also seek to drive further improvements in the area of insolvency regimes.Pensioen Federatie also backed a multi-pillar adequacy test for pension systems whereby EU member states would set their own long-term improvement targets but get assistance from EU bodies.“While the design of pension systems should remain a national competence, the EU should urge member states to set the level of ambition for retirement income for their citizens,” it said.“This would shine a light into the pension saving deficit that exists in parts of Europe and create a strong drive for developing occupational and personal pensions.” Corporate non-financial reportingThe Dutch association also called for better non-financial corporate reporting, saying this was needed to allow institutional investors to incorporate sustainability risks and factors in investment decisions, make meaningful disclosures themselves, and be able to reliably apply the sustainability taxonomy.Institutional investors are facing sustainability-related disclosure requirements under the EU’s sustainable finance action plan, with many arguing these necessitate improvements in corporate reporting. The EU’s Non-Financial Reporting Directive sets out recommendations for large companies, not binding requirements. Commission vice-president Valdis Dombrovskis has indicated the new Commission might revise the NFRD.The Council today said a measure to be explored and assessed would be “to consider the development of an European non-financial reporting standard taking into account international initiatives, with specific attention for climate-related disclosures”.Pensioen Federatie also said the Commission should ensure an adequate supply of suitable environmentally-friendly investment opportunities, for example by stepping up its InvestEU programme, while ensuring public support met strict additionality criteria.last_img read more

Cubans remember Bob Marley

first_imgImage via: rockhall.comHAVANA, Cuba (South Journal) — Cuba will host a concert on October 22 to mark the 30th anniversary of the death of reggae star Bob Marley, as part of the tributes being paid throughout Latin America to the outstanding Caribbean songwriter and singer. Local and foreign singers will join their voices and music at the Havana-based Fine Arts Museums to give this concert that will count on the participation of Paul Everton and Dave West, members of the Canadian Jamaica to Toronto Project.The concert will produce a CD with some of Bob Marley’s songs, with arrangement by Roberto Garcia that combines reggae and different Cuban music genres.Robert Nesta Marley Broker (February 3, 1945 – May 11, 1981), known as Bob Marley, was a Jamaican songwriter and singer considered the top figure of reggae. He was also respected for his efforts to spread the music of his homeland and for his defence of progressive governments in Jamaica, such as Michael Manley’s.Many know very well Marley’s greatest hits such as I Shot the Sheriff; No Woman, No Cry; Three Little Birds, a song he played with his band The Wailers, and so many other tunes.Caribbean News Now Share 22 Views   no discussions Share Sharing is caring!center_img Share EntertainmentNewsRegional Cubans remember Bob Marley by: – October 3, 2011 Tweetlast_img read more

Newcastle boss fuming over VAR decisions

first_imgNewcastle boss, Steve Bruce, became the latest Premier League manager to question the capability of VAR after seeing his side lose to two Troy Deeney penalties. Dwight Gayle had given the visitors the lead at Vicarage Road before Deeney stepped up to smash home two spot-kicks for the Hornets and help them take a big step closer to top-flight survival. Deeney made no mistake in ending a six-game scoring drought after Craig Pawson pointed to the spot following Matt Ritchie’s trip of Kiko Femenia, with the Watford skipper repeating the feat 10 minutes from the end after Ismael Sarr was adjudged to have been fouled by Javier Manquillo. read also:Newcastle manager confirms deal for ex-Motherwell keeper After the Premier League admitted to making three VAR errors across three games on Thursday night, Bruce was unhappy with the award of both Watford penalties and felt referee Pawson should have made use of his pitchside monitor. “I thought the first penalty was really, really soft,” he said. “I thought it was supposed to be clear and obvious and what is the point in sending it to VAR when they are not going to overturn anything any more? “All this nonsense we have got with VAR, they are supposed to be clear and obvious but they looked remarkably soft to me. They looked remarkably soft, especially the first one, it was a massive game for them and gave them a lifeline. So let the referee come and look at the monitor because we are not getting the right decisions at the moment in my opinion. Loading… “I’m not one to make excuses but to lose games like we did today on those big decisions it is difficult to accept.” As Bruce fumed, his counterpart Nigel Pearson celebrated what could prove to be a pivotal victory. Watford now sit six points clear of the relegation zone after a second comeback win in the space of four days. “We have still got a lot of work to do but, credit where it is due, we found answers today, the second game in a week where we have gone a goal behind and been able to win it, so lets focus on the positives of that.” Pearson also praised Deeney for stepping up twice, having been struggling for form since the restart. “Troy is prepared to take the responsibility and absorb some pressure and that in itself takes some courage. He has had some criticism of late but his response is to go out and take it in his hands.” Deeney revealed he has been playing with a knee injury in recent weeks. “My knee has been playing up for a while, so after this I will have it drained and injected. For someone scared of needles, it will be good fun,” he said. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 last_img read more

Burn Ban continues in some counties

first_imgStatewide—Before you start lighting those bonfires and roasting marshmallows for s’mores, you might want to check out the IN Burn Ban map.  Though most of southeastern Indiana is no longer under the ban, Dearborn, Ohio, Switzerland, and Union Counties continue to be under the ban. You can find the map by clicking here.last_img

Serena Williams Wins on Return to Grand Slam

first_imgFrench OpenAmerican Serena Williams made a successful return to Grand Slam tennis with a 7-6 (7-4) 6-4 win over Kristyna Pliskova at the French Open.It was a tight contest between the two big servers with the 23-time major winner bouncing back from 3-0 down in the tie-break to take the first set. There were five breaks of serve in the second set, with Williams clinching the crucial fifth before serving out.The 36-year-old will play Australia’s Ashleigh Barty in the next round.There were 28 aces in total during the match, with 17 of those coming in the first set. Both the Czech world number 70 and Williams avoided errors early on and it seemed inevitable that the set would be decided on a tie-break.Pliskova grabbed the mini-break and went into a 3-0 lead before the veteran hit back to win the next six and clinch the advantage.The service game of both players dipped markedly in the second set, with points won on the first serve falling by an average of 27%.However, it was Williams who made the fewer errors and claimed the most important break to take a 4-3 lead before she sealed victory in the 10th game.“Kristyna played really, really well,” said Williams, who returned to tennis at Indian Wells in March, six months after giving birth to her first child. “I don’t know how many aces I saw during the match. I think there is a donation to charity for each ace, so both of us helped.”It was the two-time French Open champion’s first match on clay since 2016. She added: “Two years is a long time but I’ve trained hard on this surface.“I’m so glad to win a match here and I’m taking it one day at a time.”Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegramlast_img read more