In Tanzania, a surge in sesame farming poses threat to natural forest

first_imgAgriculture, Deforestation, Drivers Of Deforestation, Farming, Forests Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Genevieve Belmakercenter_img Trees in Tanzania’s southeast region are being burned down, sometimes illegally, to make way for sesame farms.In one small village with a thriving community-owned forest project, sesame cultivation has become the leading cause of deforestation.The particularly destructive cultivation of sesame often involves cultivators burning huge swaths of forests to create farmland that is only used for two or three seasons. NANJIRINJI A, Tanzania – Patches of scorched earth line the road on the 100-mile drive from the town of Kilwa Masoko to Nanjirinji A village in southeastern Tanzania. A few big tree trunks, some still smoldering, stick out from the ground here and there in what’s known as Lindi region – the only clues that the barren-looking land was once a thriving forest.The trees, some more than 50 years old, are being burned down by the hundreds to make way for sesame farms. Sesame is used for oil, toasted seeds, as well as meal and flour and pharmaceutical applications, and Africa contributes 70 percent of the globally traded volume according to ETG, one of the continent’s largest agricultural conglomerates.A farmer chops down trees and clears the natural forest to make way for a sesame farm near Nanjirinji A’s forest reserve. Sesame farmers have been encroaching on the reserve in recent years and burning down mpingo and other valuable trees. Photo by Willy Lowry for Mongabay.Tanzania is Africa’s largest producer of sesame seeds and one of the continent’s largest exporters, according to the latest available data from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The crop is extremely important in particular to the coastal region of Lindi. According to the most recent research from 2010, 44,000 families grew sesame in Lindi and the neighboring region of Mtwara, about 12 percent of all agricultural households.Today, world demand for sesame seeds is on the rise and the market is growing in Tanzania.In 2016, there was a big push from domestic exporters to get more farmers to grow sesame. The acting director general of the Tanzania Trade Development Authority (TanTrade), Edwin Rutageruka, told The Citizen newspaper in January 2016 that Tanzanians had been missing out on trade opportunities. He said that the Lindi and Mtwara regions alone could export 440,925 tons of sesame seeds annually. Currently, the regions produce around 41,888 tons, according to Rutageruka.Encroaching on the forestIn Nanjirinji A, a small village which benefits from a community-owned forest project, sesame cultivation is the leading cause of deforestation. A survey done by the Mpingo Conservation Development Initiative (MCDI) in 2012 estimated the rate of agricultural expansion at 5 percent annually in the district. The organization facilitates the community forest project in the village. In more recent years, an increasing number of outside farmers have been creeping into the village’s 61,274-hectare forest reserve (over 151,000 acres) in search of fresh land to farm.“These days there are many farmers coming from outside to farm sesame,” said Jafari Nyambate, chairman of Nanjirinji A.Sesame farming is a particularly destructive form of agriculture, according to Glory Massao, a manager with MCDI. Massao said cultivators burn huge swaths of forests to create their farms, which they only use for two or three seasons. According to research done by the group, farmers prefer virgin land because the soil is easier to work on and requires little maintenance. There is also a belief among local farmers that virgin land produces higher yields.As far as income goes, it’s profitable work. Sesame is the second most lucrative crop farmed in the region, after cashews, and farmers can make about $200-$400 per acre, according to MCDI. Prospecting for new growing space is booming.The main road passing through the Lindi region is lined by plots of scorched earth from sesame farming. Photo by Sophie Tremblay for Mongabay.“Because of the current high price for sesame, a lot of people have been looking for new areas which have lots of potential for growing sesame and one of these areas is the village land forest reserve,” Massao said.Chairman Nyambate added that there are significant concerns over how the crop is being grown. He said farmers hack down the forest recklessly, inadvertently taking down rare species of trees found in the coastal forests such as African blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon, locally known as mpingo), panga panga (Millettia stuhlmannii) and African teak (Pterocarpus angolensis). Mpingo timber is considered one of the most valuable hardwoods in the world. The wood is used to manufacture musical instruments like clarinets, oboes and bagpipes as well as to make furniture and jewelry.The Lindi region is not alone in its predicament. Sesame cultivation is on the rise across the country, according to Tumaini Elibariki Mkenge, a project manager at Farm Africa who focuses on sesame cultivation. He said over the last five years, a slight rise in prices and a growing market has pushed more farmers to turn to sesame farming.“When you grow an acre of sesame, the cost is very low compared to other crops in terms of input and the operations on the farm,” Mkenge said. “The price of sesame has been increasing so farmers have been very interested to get profit from sesame.”Mkenge also said that the traditional shifting cultivation method practiced by many sesame farmers is severely damaging the land. “When burning the land, the fertility of the soil decreases very rapidly compared to normal cultivation,” he said.Situation has become ‘awful’In January, Tanzania’s Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa, who doubles as the Member of Parliament for the area, asked residents in a village neighboring Nanjirinji A to stop cutting down trees, according to a local newspaper report.He warned that if people don’t stop contributing to deforestation, their wetland forests will turn to a semi-arid zone.Farmers set fire to the forest and then clear the remaining trees for their plot. During a survey of farmers in the area, many responded they believed farming on virgin land produced higher yields, and crops grown on previously forested land required less maintenance. Photo by Sophie Tremblay for Mongabay.“Sesame farming has become awful; there is no water now due to cutting down of trees by the farmers,” Majaliwa said in the article. “For instance, Mbwemkuru River, which did not go dry throughout the year, has now turned into a seasonal water source.” The phenomenon is still too new for there to be available government data.The Nanjirinji A Village Natural Resource Committee has upped their patrols of the forest in response to encroaching sesame farmers, but the chairman said it is struggling to cover the vast area.“It’s a big challenge because the farmers come from outside the village, so we don’t know them or who they are,” Nyambate said. “We are patrolling the forest using rangers and motorbikes, but we need more resources.”Tensions between the village and sesame farmers have sometimes led to aggressions. Last year, Nyambate said that the farmers burned one of the village council’s motorcycles which was used in their patrols and bought with money made from forest profits.“The communities are losing a lot of money,” Massao said. She added that MCDI plans to work with the village to plant trees in order to restore areas that have been destroyed by sesame farmers.While MCDI does not have statistics assessing how much forest has been lost to sesame farming, a recent survey from 2015 by the Tanzania Forest Services Agency points to shifting agriculture as a primary driver of deforestation. Mkenge believes there is an urgent need across the country to educate farmers in conservation.“This is for the future of [our country], our farmers need to get knowledge on conservation agriculture which is more sustainable for the land itself and also to guarantee their farming future.”Banner image: The main road passing through the Lindi region is lined by plots of scorched earth from sesame farming. Photo by Sophie Tremblay for Mongabay.Sophie Tremblay and Willy Lowry are foreign correspondents based in Arusha, Tanzania. You can find them on Twitter at: @sophietremblay and @willy_lowryFEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.Resources:Schulz, A. & Mbuvi, J. (2010) “Unlocking Sesame Farmers’ Potential for Fair Trade in Southern Tanzania.”The Citizen. “Tanzania Misses Sesame Export Chances”Miya M., Ball S. & Nelson F. (2012) “Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Kilwa District”Daily News. “Don’t cut trees, Ruangwa residents told”Tanzania Forest Service Agency. NAFORMA Report 2015.last_img read more

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Amazon infrastructure EIAs under-assess biodiversity; scientists offer solutions

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Glenn Scherer Amazon Biodiversity, Amazon Conservation, Amazon Dams, Amazon Destruction, Amazon Mining, Biodiversity, Biodiversity Crisis, Biodiversity Hotspots, Dams, Deforestation, DNA, Drivers Of Deforestation, Energy, Energy Politics, Environment, Environmental Politics, Flooding, Forests, Green, Hydroelectric Power, Hydropower, Infrastructure, Land Use Change, Mining, Monitoring, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforest Mining, Rainforests, Rivers, Roads, satellite data, Satellite Imagery, Saving The Amazon, Threats To The Amazon, Tropical Deforestation center_img In a new paper, scientists assert that environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for major Brazilian Amazon infrastructure projects often fail in their performance of comprehensive biodiversity evaluations, so underestimate ecosystem risk.Their proposed solution is the development and use within EIAs of multiple, complementary scientific methods they say would be cost effective, and make more comprehensive biodiversity assessments possible.These methods include satellite imaging, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and DNA metabarcoding to detect a wider range of species. The scientists propose these methods be implemented to improve pre-construction biodiversity surveys and EIAs.A major concern by researchers is that Brazil’s Congress is currently considering legislation that would do away with the existing environmental licensing process, and reduce or eliminate existing EIA requirements. Looking up into the canopy of the Amazon rainforest. Numerous major infrastructure projects are under construction or planned for the Amazon basin. A new study examining the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process for three very large such projects found their EIAs, as conducted, to be inadequate for evaluating biodiversity impacts. Photo by Rhett A. Butler / MongabayMany dozens of major infrastructure projects — including highways, dams and mines — have been given the green light in the Brazilian Amazon in recent years, and hundreds more are in the pipeline – but how well do their Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) perform? Are their projections of harm accurate, and do they sufficiently manage risk?Many projects, such as the Tapajós dam complex, have hit the headlines due to their projected social and ecological impacts, which include deforestation, harm to aquatic and terrestrial species, disruption to flood and nutrient cycles, increased carbon emissions, the flooding of sacred lands and the forced relocation of river communities.As a guard against these threats, all major development in the Brazilian Amazon requires that an environmental impact assessment (EIA) be carried out as part of the project licensing process. But a recent paper, examining three large infrastructure projects in the region, has found just how ineffective the existing EIA process can be.As a result, the scientists behind the study are calling for the incorporation of new technology into Brazilian EIAs to more accurately measure biodiversity and habitat quality ahead of construction, allowing a full cost-benefit analysis of development to be carried out.The BR-319 highway, linking the cities of Manaus and Porto Velho, was one of three major Amazon projects examined by scientists. Repaving the highway would open up biologically important areas of remote forest to deforestation, they say, something not adequately taken into account in the project’s EIA. Photo by Agencia CNT de Noticias under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic licenseInadequate EIAsThe research team, led by Camila Ritter of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, looked at an existing highway, hydropower dam, and mine:Paving the BR-319: This Amazon rainforest highway links the cities of Manaus and Porto Velho. Constructed in the 1970s, it fell into disrepair by the late 1980s. An EIA for paving a large, central section was rejected in 2008, but maintenance work — which effectively permits the reconstruction of the BR-319, except for paving itself — was approved in 2016. Although in this case the EIA contributed to the project license being formally rejected (for now) the scientists argue that the assessment fell far short of accurately analyzing the environmental consequences of paving. The improved BR-319 would likely do extensive harm to a highly biodiverse region between the Madeira and Purus rivers, rich in endemic species. Amazon highways, the researchers note, are a key driver of deforestation, with once remote and now newly accessible roadside forests a prime target for exploitation.Building the Belo Monte dam: When fully operational, the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River will be the third largest in the world with an 11,000 megawatt generating capacity. Dogged by controversy and licensing hold-ups, the reservoir was filled in December 2015. The scientists argue that its EIA overlooked the synergistic effects of the dam in combination with other hydropower dams within the watershed. The EIA, they say, failed to fully evaluate the disruption to natural flood cycles, the carbon emissions caused by the reservoir, and also underestimated the dam’s impetus for a rapid increase in the local human population, which impacted the surrounding forest and wildlife. The Belo Monte EIA “is descriptive rather than predictive, and it falls short of proposing mitigating actions,” said the researchers.The Juruti bauxite mine: In the case of the Juruti bauxite mine, an industrial complex that includes a mine, port and railway on the southern bank of the Amazon River in Pará state, the scientists found that biological sampling for its EIA was inadequate. Not only was biodiversity significantly underestimated, but rare, endemic species were likely to have been missed altogether. This is on top of the “significant and long-lasting environmental changes” that the development is likely to bring to the region.What all three projects share, the scientists say, is a failure in one of the main components of every good EIA: to properly assess biodiversity. “The most important aspect in the discussion of Brazilian Amazonia EIAs is that we need to obtain better estimates of biological diversity, which translate into better predictions of biological and ecological impacts of these large infrastructural projects,” says Ritter.Belo Monte dam under construction in 2015. Large dams obstruct the flow of sediments and nutrients from headwaters to lowland floodplains, disrupt natural flood cycles, impede animal movement and migration along river channels, and drive deforestation. Photo by Pascalg622 used under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported licenseThe satellite solutionThe team recommends that planners look to the skies, and the soil, to get a more complete picture of existing biodiversity, so EIAs can more accurately assess the harm that planned developments might cause.Their proposed solution is the development and use of multiple, complementary scientific methods that they say would be cost effective, and make more comprehensive biodiversity assessments possible.This would include techniques such as remote sensing, where satellite images are used to analyze habitat extent and quality, making it possible to “monitor large areas in a consistent manner.” Another remote sensing method, called near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, offers “enormous but largely unrealized potential” to identify individual tree species from their spectral signature — the way in which they reflect light.Nathalie Pettorelli, who heads the Environmental Monitoring and Conservation Modelling team at the Zoological Society of London, UK, believes that “satellite remote sensing provides a fantastic opportunity to refine the EIA process.”“Importantly, these data could be used to learn about likely environmental impacts of various anthropogenic developments, by monitoring environmental changes in places where such developments have already occurred. This could help improve predictive abilities of future EIAs; and this could be particularly true in areas where these data get to be combined with reliable on the ground information,” added Pettorelli, who was not involved in the study.A bauxite mine in Brazil. Open pit mining, if not properly managed, can pollute the water table, creeks and rivers, and no matter how managed, results in deforestation. Norsk Hydro ASA photo found on flickrDNA analysisOn the ground, it could be the soil itself that holds the key: the third method highlighted by Ritter’s team for improving EIA accuracy is DNA metabarcoding — the sequencing of DNA found in soil to identify species and build up a picture of the biodiversity in a local area. Not only does this method have the potential to identify plants, animals, and microorganisms within a particular habitat without needing individual specimens, it also lends itself to repeatable and comparable analysis of regions and impacts.Douglas Yu, of the University of East Anglia, UK, leads research into metabarcoding methods, and is a co-founder of UK-based NatureMetrics, a company providing metabarcoding services to land managers. He agrees that using multiple methods is the way forward: “I think combining these independent data sources could provide a real boost to informativeness. Earth Observation provides continuous coverage of the environment, and metabarcoding (and other genetic information) could help to interpret those remote images.”Scientific and political obstaclesBut hurdles remain before these methods become mainstream. “The most useful satellite data for biodiversity monitoring in Brazil are not systematically readily available for the moment,” explained Pettorelli. But more important challenges “are linked to capacity, specifically capacity to analyze the available satellite data in a meaningful way,” she said.A red howler monkey howling. According to the study, all three of the project EIAs examined failed to fully assess biodiversity. The scientists suggest that technological advances offer cost-effective ways to improve biodiversity evaluations in the EIA process, including satellite imagery and DNA metabarcoding of soil samples. Photo by Rhett A. Butler / MongabayFor metabarcoding, “[t]he main obstacle would be to build a good DNA sequence reference database of all — or as many as possible — organisms in Brazil and the Amazon,” Ritter said. But, in the meantime, a simplified approach could make use of metabarcoding data to measure and compare diversity without knowing the exact species, she explained.There is added urgency for this debate: the legislative framework that defines EIAs in Brazil is under attack from proposed legal amendments that “would essentially abolish environmental licensing by making the mere submission of an environmental impact statement an automatic approval to go ahead with construction of the project in question,” said Philip Fearnside, of the National Institute for Research in Amazonia, and co-author of the new study.Once proposed amendments gutting the environmental licensing process come up for a vote in Brazil’s Congress — something Fearnside says is likely to happen at any time — “their approval is hard to stop due to ruralist control,” he explained, referring to the bancada ruralista, the agribusiness and mining rural lobby that currently wields tremendous power in the legislature and the administration of President Michel Temer.“The battle is focused on keeping the regulations we have from being abolished,” he added.But, Fearnside still sees the adoption of cutting edge EIA data gathering methods as a real possibility. “Technological improvements such as these are much more easily incorporated than are changes that require legislation,” he said, noting that similar changes have been made numerous times in EIA methodology over the past 30 years.Ritter is also optimistic about Brazil’s ability to make these necessary improvements.“I believe it is indeed possible to combine societal progress and large infrastructural projects with a continued high biodiversity. The money is available, as are the scientific expertise and the methodological progress,” concludes Ritter. “What is lacking, I fear, is the will to make this happen.”Citation:Ritter, C. D., McCrate, G., Nilsson, R. H., Fearnside, P. M., Palme, U. and Antonelli, A. 2017. Environmental impact assessment in Brazilian Amazonia: Challenges and prospects to assess biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 206, 161-168FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more

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