(PhysOrg.com) — When it comes to carbon nanotubes, the majority of research so far has focused on small-scale applications. But now, a team of researchers from Rice University has created carbon nanotubes that are hundreds of meters long, yet just 50 micrometers thick. The researchers say there is no limit to how long the nanotubes can be made, which opens the doors to large-scale applications including using nanotubes as electrical transmission lines and as the basis of structural materials. Carbon nanotube fibers hundreds of meters long could be fabricated by being processed in a superacid. Image credit: Rice University. Explore further The Rice project began in 2001, led by the late Nobel laureate Richard Smalley. After years of research investigating solution-processing techniques, the scientists found that a superacid called chlorosulphonic acid could spontaneously dissolve carbon nanotubes at concentrations 1,000 times greater than any other solvent. The method can produce well-aligned carbon nanotubes on a large scale, in which nanotubes can be shot out of a nozzle similar to a shower head. The researchers have published the details of the acid-processing technique in a recent issue of Nature Nanotechnology.Since carbon nanotubes are highly conductive, the researchers are currently working on a project for making electrical transmission lines. “Metallic nanotubes conduct electricity better than copper, they’re lighter, and they fail less often,” said Rice chemical engineering professor Matteo Pasquali.To make transmission lines, the researchers will need extremely large amounts of metallic nanotubes. Currently, there aren’t any good methods that can make large batches of nanotubes that contain all metallic nanotubes without any semiconducting nanotubes. But some recent research in this area has been promising, and the researchers predict that a breakthrough could occur in the near future.More information: True solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes for assembly into macroscopic materials, Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 1 November 2009; doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.302via: Technology Review© 2009 PhysOrg.com High Value Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes Citation: Ultra-Long Carbon Nanotubes Could Serve as Future Transmission Lines (2009, November 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-11-ultra-long-carbon-nanotubes-future-transmission.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This image shows a 0.1 x 0.03 inch (2.5 x 0.8 mm) small Drosophila melanogaster fly. Image: Wikimedia Commons (Phys.org) —Researchers from the University of California working with a team at Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Virginia, have discovered how it is that fruit flies are able to lay their eggs in rotting fruit that has just the right amount of ethanol in it to promote healthy young. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes how they found clusters of neurons in the adult flies’ brains that responded differently to different levels of ethanol. © 2013 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Alcoholic fly larvae need fix for learning More information: Competing dopamine neurons drive oviposition choice for ethanol in Drosophila, PNAS, Published online before print December 9, 2013, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1320208110AbstractThe neural circuits that mediate behavioral choice evaluate and integrate information from the environment with internal demands and then initiate a behavioral response. Even circuits that support simple decisions remain poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, oviposition on a substrate containing ethanol enhances fitness; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating this important choice behavior. Here, we characterize the neural modulation of this simple choice and show that distinct subsets of dopaminergic neurons compete to either enhance or inhibit egg-laying preference for ethanol-containing food. Moreover, activity in α′β′ neurons of the mushroom body and a subset of ellipsoid body ring neurons (R2) is required for this choice. We propose a model where competing dopaminergic systems modulate oviposition preference to adjust to changes in natural oviposition substrates. Citation: Study unlocks secret of how fruit flies choose fruit with just the right amount of ethanol (2013, December 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-secret-fruit-flies-amount-ethanol.html Fruit fllies are notorious for showing up just as fruit begins to rot. Prior research has found they are able to smell the ethanol from a great distance and that the flies both eat the rotting fruit and use it as a repository for their eggs. In this new effort, the researchers have found that the flies are also able to determine the level of ethanol in the fruit and to move on if it’s not just right for the best development of their offspring. Too little ethanol, the researchers report, results in too-heavy offspring that have difficulty flying. Too much ethanol causes a delay in development which reduces their chances of reproducing. The right amount is apparently 5%—about the same as beer.To ascertain if the fruit is right for rearing little ones, the adult female relies on clusters of neurons in its brain, the team found, that actually work against one another. All of the neurons release dopamine, but the types of neurons differ in response to ethanol. One type causes the fly to seek it out, the other to avoid it—or at least too much of it. Thus, one group of neurons cause the mom–to-be to seek out fruit with ethanol in it, while another causes her to keep on moving if the stimulation is too strong. When the level is just right, she lays her eggs.As a follow-up, the research team also traced the path of brain stimulation as ethanol was breathed in. They found that some regions of the brain that responded to stimulation got busy, while at the same time other regions that are believed to be involved in decision-making and memory lit up as well. This suggests that the flies were drawn in by the pleasurable aroma of ethanol, but then used logic to decide if the levels were right for baby-raising.
More information: Rana W. El-Sabaawi et al. Biodiversity and ecosystem risks arising from using guppies to control mosquitoes, Biology Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0590AbstractDeploying mosquito predators such as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) into bodies of water where mosquitoes breed is a common strategy for limiting the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Here, we draw on studies from epidemiology, conservation, ecology and evolution to show that the evidence for the effectiveness of guppies in controlling mosquitoes is weak, that the chances of accidental guppy introduction into local ecosystems are large, and that guppies can easily establish populations and damage these aquatic ecosystems. We highlight several knowledge and implementation gaps, and urge that this approach is either abandoned in favour of more effective strategies or that it is used much more rigorously. Controlling mosquitoes does not need to come at the expense of freshwater biodiversity. As the researchers note, humans have been tossing guppies into lakes, streams and other places where there is standing water to reduce mosquito populations for centuries. Once released, they eat mosquito larvae that lie on the surface, preventing them from growing to maturity and biting people. Most such instances have been in response to outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases—locals have used the practice in the studied regions very recently to slow the spread of the Zika virus, for example. But such a tactic, the researchers contend, is not only unproven, but harmful to other animal species in the same water.Curious about the practice of using guppies to control mosquitoes, the researchers combed multiple studies in the areas of conservation, epidemiology, evolution and ecology—looking for those that included guppies. In so doing, they found scant evidence supporting the notion that using guppies to control mosquitoes actually works. They found much more evidence that suggested that guppies should be classified as an invasive species when introduced outside of its native environment. They found instances of the fish reproducing so rapidly and consuming so much of the local food sources that other animals living in the same water died out. They suggest that the use of guppies to control mosquitos for any purpose be abandoned or that its use be used “much more rigorously.”Not everyone is likely to agree with this assessment, however, as some researchers such as those working for the Malaria Consortium have found that putting guppies in water tanks in tropical areas helps reduce the spread of dengue fever in places like Viet Nam—with such an approach, they claim, there is no chance of the fish invading an established ecosystem. Citation: Research group suggests using guppies to control mosquitoes be abandoned (2016, October 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-group-guppies-mosquitoes-abandoned.html © 2016 Phys.org Single wild female Journal information: Biology Letters Explore further Male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Image: Wikipedia. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from the U.S., the West Indies, Canada and Brazil has conducted a survey of research efforts looking into the effectiveness and safety of releasing guppies to reduce the number of mosquitoes and report that evidence supporting such use is lacking—they also note that guppies can become an invasive species putting other species at risk. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the team describes their research and why they believe that guppies are not an effective tool for fighting the spread of infectious diseases. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
There are some artists whose works transcend the test of time and remain in people’s memories even after they are gone. Such is the case with Pandit Ravi Shankar who passed away last December. Now some of the doyens of Indian classical music, along with some rising stars, have decided to come together to pay a tribute to the sitar maestro who was the global face of Indian music. The Shriram Shankarlal Music Festival 2013, which is celebrating its diamond jubilee this year, is dedicated to the memory of Ravi Shankar. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The festival intends to pay a homage to him through music. The five-day festival, which started on Thursday, will have a total of 10 performances. Participating artistes include Manjari Asanare, Shounak Abhisheki , Manjusha Patil, Rashid Khan, Kaushik Desikan, Uday Bhawalkar, Pandit Jasraj, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Shahid Parvez Khan and Ronu Majumdar.‘Pandit Ravi Shankar was like a god to us. He was the king of the music world and the milestones created by him are something that every artiste aspires to achieve,’ said vocalist Manjusha Patil. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixPatil, a disciple of Pandit Kanebua and Ulhas Kashalkar, is known for her rendition of Khayal.‘The popularity and the ease with which Shankar managed to travel through cultures just stressed the point that if you know Indian classical music, if you have mastered the art, everything else becomes easy for you,’ she added.The centurion Hindustani classical vocalist Abdul Rashid Khan of the Gwalior will also be performing at the festival.The festival began with performances by vocalist Manjiri Asanare and santoor by Pandit Shiv Kumar Sharma. On the second day today, vocalist Manjusha Patil will take the stage, followed by Abdul Rashid Khan. On the third day, there will be vocals by Shounak Abhisheki and sitar by Shahid Parvez Khan.On the last day, there will be vocals by Kaushiki Desikan (better known as the daughter of Hindustani classical vocalist of Patiala gharana Pandit Ajoy Chakraborty) followed by flute by Ronu Majumdar in the morning. In the evening, there are performances by Uday Bhawalkar and Pandit Jasraj.Padma Vibhushan Pandit Jasraj will give the closing performance at the festival. The soulful melodious evenings promise to be an absolute delight to all music lovers.DETAILAt: Kamani Auditorium, Copernicus Marg On till: 24 February Timings: 7 pm, 8.30 pm Phone: 23386428
If you have been recently promoted to a middle-management position in office, researchers have some bad news. Mid-level managers suffer higher rates of depression and anxiety than those at the top or bottom, says a new study.“We explored how social class might influence depression and anxiety in ways that may be masked or incompletely explained by standard
Kolkata: The St Stephen’s College authorities have cancelled the programme where Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee was scheduled to address a meeting, citing ” protocol” issues.Banerjee was scheduled to address a gathering at the college on August 1. This was for the first time when a Chief Minister from Bengal had been invited to address the students of the college, one of the premier educational institutions in the country.The college is under the Church of North India. Interestingly, the college authorities did not specify any reason for cancelling the programme except citing the ” protocol” issue. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”First the Vivekananda event in Chicago… then her China visit… and now St Stephens!””Mamata Banerjee is giving the BJP-RSS sleepless nights. Let them keep trying… she cannot be silenced. The Bengal CM’s trip to Delhi is on schedule. She will be chief guest at the “Love your Neighbour” conference organised by India’s largest Christian body, The Catholic Bishops Conference of India, on 31st July at 2.30 pm” said a senior Trinamool MP.It may be mentioned that recently two of Banerjee’s foreign trips got cancelled and in both the cases, no specific reason was cited. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedIn June, Banerjee was scheduled to visit China and accordingly all arrangements were made. At the last minute, the trip was cancelled as it could not be decided who would meet her on behalf of the Chinese government.The state government had alleged that the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) did not take much interest in the trip. However, the ministry denied the allegation made by the state government.Banerjee was scheduled to address a gathering at Chicago in-end August to commemorate the 125th anniversary of Swami Vivekananda’s historic speech at the World’s Parliament of Religions, which was held in Chicago on September 11, 1893. The Ramakrishna Math and Mission had invited Banerjee to be present at the function.However, RKM wrote a letter to Banerjee expressing its inability to hold the meeting following the death of Swami Abhiramananda, one of the assistant general secretaries of the Order and ” other reasons.”It was learnt that RKM had succumbed to the pressure of the Ministry of External Affairs.
Kolkata: The state government has empowered more than 50 lakh girls through Kanyashree Prakalpa.In a tweet on International Day of the Girl Child, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee stated: “Today is International Day of the Girl Child. I am happy to share that our #Kanyashree Prakalpa for girl child had been feted by the @UN in 2017.”She stated further in the tweet that “More than 50 lakh girls have been empowered through this scheme, which has a budget of Rs 5,600+ crore. Best wishes to all #BiswaBangla.” Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeIt may be mentioned that Kanyashree Prakalpa is the brainchild of the Chief Minister. She took the step to check school dropout rate and encouraged girls to continue with their higher studies as well.The scheme has been continuing successfully for the past five years. The Mamata Banerjee government has received the United Nations Public Service Award for Asia Pacific in Netherlands in 2017, for the Kanyashree Prakalpa.The project was introduced in 2013 and more than 50 lakh girl students were brought under the project. Students from Classes VIII to XII get Rs 1,000 every year under the KI part of the scheme. The K2 part of Kanyashree Prkalpa is the one-time grant of Rs 25,000 for students who continue their studies up to Class XII. Later, the K3 part was introduced for post-graduate students. Under the K3 part of the scheme, arts and commerce students get Rs 2,000 per year, while science students get Rs 2,500. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedIt may be mentioned that on completion of the fifth year of Kanyashree Prakalpa, the Chief Minister had announced that girls from all strata of the society will be getting the benefit once they get promoted to Class VIII. Earlier, only girl students from families with annual income less than Rs 1.20 lakh used to get the benefit.At the same time, the state government has also taken the initiative to set up Kanyashree University. Moreover, the Chief Minister has also given direction to take steps for skill development of Kanyashree girls.The initiative taken by the state government has not only checked the school dropout rate, but has also helped the beneficiaries to be self-dependent. A large section of the beneficiaries of Kanyashree Prakalpa has utilised the one-time grant to become self-dependent.
Men accumulate more iron than women, making them prone to Type 2 diabetes, researchers said. Two-fifth of men as compared to one-fifth of women were at risk.Iron is a micronutrient that is required in the formation of some essential body proteins and enzymes, like haemoglobin, cytochromes and peroxidase. However, it is harmful when stored in excess in the body. It promotes the release of free radicals that damage the secretion capacity of beta cells of pancreas to produce insulin. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIt also decreases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and organs involved in glucose metabolism, the study said.The study, led by Alex O Aregbesola from University of Eastern Finland, showed that men have 61 per cent higher prevalence and 46 per cent increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes when compared with women. Excess body iron accumulation is a known risk factor of Type 2 diabetes in hereditary hemochromatosis – a disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron from the diet. However, the study showed that even mildly elevated body iron contributes to the prevalence and incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThis excess iron was found to disturb the glucose metabolism in the body. On the other hand, moderate iron stores were found safer than depletion toward iron deficiency.Iron depletion toward deficiency did not offer protection against Type 2 diabetes.The type of association between iron stores and the risk of Type 2 diabetes showed that the risk was lowest on moderate levels, the researchers said.“This study provides a new body of evidence that mildly elevated body iron is an important risk factor of glucose metabolism derangement, which contributes to the increase in the prevalence and incidence of Type 2 diabetes,” Aregbesola said, in the paper published in the journal Annals of Clinical Biochemistry.
Kolkata: BJP supporters tried to stop the car of state Education minister Partha Chatterjee on Chittaranjan Avenue when he was returning after attending a function at Bethune College on Wednesday.Carrying flags, the protesters shouted slogans against the Trinamool Congress and tried to stop Chatterjee’s vehicle. The policemen on duty and Chatterjee’s security personnel chased them away. Meanwhile, Rahul Sinha, national secretary of BJP has asked his party colleagues to carry lathis for self-defence. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedSuvendu Adhikari, the state Transport minister, led a massive rally which was taken out to protest against ransacking of the TMC party office in Contai on Tuesday. Adhikari said the BJP is spreading violence every where. After the meeting of Amit Shah ended on Tuesday, some BJP supporters attacked the Trinamool Congress office and set two motorcycles on fire. The windscreens of many cars were damaged too. Two TMC supporters who had sustained injuries have been shifted to Kolkata. The TMC will hold a meeting on the same spot where Amit Shah had held a rally on Tuesday. Adhikari alleged that BJP supporters had ransacked the TMC party office without any provocation. “The nervousness of the BJP has become palpable and violence is due to that.” He also alleged that some CPI(M) cadres who have joined BJP were responsible for the violence that took place on Tuesday. Trinamool Congress supremo Mamata Banerjee who was addressing the people at a meeting in Rampurhat also condemned the attack.
Whether you are planning a quick weekend getaway, road trip or a week long holiday, don’t leave your fashion quotient behind, say experts. 4Going to the beach for holidays? Then pull out your sundresses. Pair them up with strappy sandals, oversized sun glasses, and a straw tote bag. Men can go for nautical prints, solid pastel-hued shorts and espadrilles.4If you want to explore cities like Paris and Rome, opt for outfits with a single colour palette and accessorise with a silk scarf or a barrette to keep it elegant. Skip the heels and pick the ballerinas. Guys, pack your Breton tees, pinstriped trousers and classy loafers. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf4Adventure on your mind? Equip yourself with quick-drying cargo shorts or fashionable elastic bottom trousers; you can opt for any of them. Hiking boots are a must as is a pair of flip-flops. If you’re heading into the deep woods, then steer away from attention-grabbing bright colours and opt for earthy tones.4While packing for your mountain trip, it is important to take into account unexpected changes in weather, so pack clothes that can be easily layered to accommodate the change-jackets, mufflers and socks. Also remember to carry a pair of comfortable jeans and a pair of boots.